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G0AB> ?@8 MB>< =5 CG8BK20NBAO.;O 2>7<>6=>AB8 A>?>AB02;5=8O <5E0=8G5A:8E A2>9AB2 ?@8 8A?KB0=8OE =5>1E>48<> A>1;N40BL ?>4>185 35><5B@8G5A:>5, B5E=>;>38G5A:>5, <5E0=8G5A:>5, D878G5A:>5 8 M=5@35B8G5A:>5.@82545< ;8HL >A=>2=K5 D878:>-<5E0=8G5A:85 A2>9AB20 4;O ?@5A=>2>4=>3> ;L40, 2 B>< >1J5<5, :>B>@K9 =5>1E>48< 4;O 40;L=59H53> 87;>65=8O.@54?>;0305BAO, GB> ?@8 B5<?5@0BC@0E >B -3! 8 =865, 8 ?@8 :@0B:>2@5<5==KE 2>7459AB28OE ;54 2545B A51O :0: 2?>;=5 C?@C3>5 B5;>, ?>4G8=ONI55AO 70:>=C C:0. ;0AB8G5A:0O 45D>@<0F8O ?@8 MB>< =5 CA?5205B @0728BLAO.@8 >?@545;5=88 <>4C;O C?@C3>AB8 ;L40 8A?>;L7CNB AB0B8G5A:89 8 48=0<8G5A:89 A?>A>1K. !B0B8G5A:89 A?>A>1 ?>72>;O5B ?>;CG8BL ?@8 AB0B8G5A:>< =03@C65=88 >1@07F>2 B0: =07K205<K9 <>4C;L 45D>@<0F88, :>B>@K9 2A5340 <5=LH5 48=0<8G5A:>3>:!T= (5,69 - 0,648 T)*1030; E4=(8 + 9,8)*1030,345 " - 01A>;NB=0O B5<?5@0BC@0 2>74CE0.- >MDD8F85=B C0AA>=0 =0,31-0,36.- >4C;L A42830 G=(3,0-3,8)*103Ma.=0G5=85 ?@>G=>AB8 ;L40 =0 A60B85 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B B5<?5@0BC@K ?@82545=K =865 [14]: ", 0C0 EMBED Equation.3-5-5EMBED Equation.3-1010EMBED Equation.3-15-15EMBED Equation.3-20c6, 0& 1.6EMBED Equation.33.03.0EMBED Equation.33.63.6EMBED Equation.33.93.0EMBED Equation.34.0@>G=>ABL ?@8 @0ABO65=88:", 0C0EMBED Equation.3-10-10EMBED Equation.3-20-20EMBED Equation.3-35p, 0...0.9EMBED Equation.31.21.2EMBED Equation.31.51.4EMBED Equation.31.8@>G=>ABL ;L40 =0 87381 >F5=820NB 2 E>45 @07@CH5=8O >1@07F>2 ;L40 ?@8 873815 ?> 87<5@5=8O< ?@8;>65==>3> CA8;8O 8 @07<5@>2 MB8E >1@07F>2. !G8B05BAO, GB> =081>;55 =0456=K5 @57C;LB0BK 40NB 8A?KB0=8O :;028H =0 ?;02C, 2K@570==KE 87 ;54O=>3> ?>:@>20 u=0.47-0.71 M0.@>G=>ABL =0 87381 ACI5AB25==> 7028A8B >B A:>@>AB8 45D>@<0F88. @54AB02;O5BAO >1>A=>20==>9 7028A8<>ABL ?@>G=>AB8 ;L40 =0 87381, ?@54;>65==0O . . 02@>2K< [34] 8 ?>:070==0O =0 @8AC=:5 2. @>G=>ABL ;L40 ?@8 @0ABO65=88 8 A60B88 @07;8G=0, ?>MB><C =59B@0;L=0O >AL A<5I05BAO ?@8 873815 8 G0AB> E0@0:B5@ @0A?@545;5=8O =0?@O65=89 ?> B>;I8=5 ?;0AB8=K AB0=>28BAO =5;8=59=K<. @>G=>ABL ;L40 =0 A@57 ?@8 >B@8F0B5;L=KE B5<?5@0BC@0E 2>74CE0 A@=0.6-1,10.  ?>A;54=55 2@5<O @0728B85 ?>;CG8;8 8AA;54>20=8O 2 >1;0AB8 <5E0=8:8 @>AB0 B@5I8= 2 @07;8G=KE <0B5@80;0E, =5A:>;L:> >?KB>2 1K;> ?@>2545=> 2> ;L4C [35,36]. 725AB=>, GB> >A=>2=>9 E0@0:B5@8AB8:>9 @>AB0 B@5I8= O2;O5BAO :>MDD8F85=B 2O7:>AB8 @07@CH5=8O 2 25@H8=5 B@5I8=K >B@K20 1!. "0:, 2 @01>B5 [36] 7=0G5=8O 1! ?>;8:@8AB0;;8G5A:>3> ;L40, ?>;CG5==K5 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>, @02=K 0,30EMBED Equation.30,15 0 *<1/2 (?@8 B5<?5@0BC@5 >B -2 4> -14 !). -:A?5@8<5=B0;L=K5 87<5@5=8O 1! ?@>2545=K B0:65 C4<5=>< ?@8 B5<?5@0BC@0E -4, -11 8 -24!. !@54=85 7=0G5=8O 1! >:070;8AL A>>B25BAB25==> @02=K<8 0,118; 0,119; 0,108 0*<1/2 . [36] >B<5G05BAO, GB> :>MDD8F85=B 2O7:>AB8 @07@CH5=8O ?@0:B8G5A:8 =5 7028A8B >B A:>@>AB8 =03@C65=8O 8 B5<?5@0BC@K.>MDD8F85=BK B@5=8O =0BC@=>3> ;L40 > :>@?CA AC4=0 87<5=ONBAO 2 H8@>:8E ?@545;0E. 0?@8<5@, 48=0<8G5A:89 :>MDD8F85=B B@5=8O <5=O5BAO 2 ?@545;0E 0,02EMBED Equation.30,20, 0 AB0B8G5A:89 :>MDD8F85=B 2 ?@545;0E 0,04EMBED Equation.31,0 [22]. ;>B=>ABL ;L40 @; :>;51;5BAO 2 ?@545;0E >B 890 4> 920 :3/<. "5?;>?@>2>4=>ABL ?@5A=>3> ;L40 = 2,22B/<*."5<?5@0BC@>?@>2>4=>ABL a=/cp*; 345 - cp C45;L=0O B5?;>5<:>ABL ;L40 ?@8 ?>AB>O==>< 402;5=88, =0?@8<5@, 0= 4,76*107 <2/A ?@8 T=-5>!.#45;L=0O B5?;>B0 ?;02;5=8O L' ?@5A=>2>4=>3> ;L40 ?@8 @07=>9 B5<?5@0BC@5 2>74CE0 @07;8G=0O [36]:",!0-5-10-15-20L , :6/:3334308285262241"5?;>5<:>ABL ?@5A=>2>4=>3> ;L40 A = (2.12 0,0078") 6/3*. >25@E=>AB=0O M=5@38O (:>;8G5AB2> @01>BK, =5>1E>48<>9 4;O A>740=8O 548=8FK ?;>I048 ?>25@E=>AB8 @0745;0 D07 2 87>B5@<8G5A:>< ?@>F5AA5) @02=0 33 3 6/<2.!=53, ;560I89 =0 ?>25@E=>AB8 ;L40, 2;8O5B =0 2708<>459AB285 AC4>2 A ;54O=K< ?>:@>2><. @82545< =5:>B>@K5 <5E0=8G5A:85 A2>9AB20 A=530. ;>B=>ABL A25652K?02H53> A=530 @A;=60EMBED Equation.3130 :3/<3, A25653> C?;>B=5==>3> 25B@>< @A;2=180EMBED Equation.3220 :3/<3, AB0@>3> @A=AB=240EMBED Equation.3250 :3/<3. 8A. 3. @>G=>ABL A=530 =0 A60B85, A@57, @0ABO65=85 8 87381.0 @8AC=:5 3 ?@82545=K @57C;LB0BK >?@545;5=8O ?@545;>2 ?@>G=>AB8 A=530 =0 A@57 A@, A60B85 A6, 87381 u 8 @0ABO65=85 p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quation.3917 :3/<3 8;8 @;=890EMBED Equation.3920 :3/<.  :0G5AB25 A@54=53> 7=0G5=8O @; 4;O @5G=>3> ;L40 ?@8 >B@8F0B5;L=>9 B5<?5@0BC@5 <>65B 1KBL ?@8=OB> 7=0G5=85 @;=920 :3/<3.;>B=>ABL <>@A:>3> ;L40 =57=0G8B5;L=> >B;8G05BAO >B ?@5A=>2>4=>3>, B0: ?@82>4OBAO 2>7<>6=K5 480?07>=K MB>9 25;8G8=K p;=830EMBED Equation.3930 :3/< 8 2 :0G5AB25 @0AG5B=>3> @5:><5=4C5BAO @;=900 :3/<. > 40==K< 8AA;54>20=89 .. >3>@>4A:>3> [19], .. 02@>20 [34], .. !5@8:>20 [37], .. !<8@=>20 [38] ?;>B=>ABL ?@5A=>2>4=>3> ;L40 :>;51;5BAO 2 ?@545;0E @;=870EMBED Equation.3920 :3/<3, 0 4;O <>@A:>3> ;L40 @;=840EMBED Equation.3930 :3/<3.0: 284=> 87 0=0;870 25;8G8=0 ?;>B=>AB8 ;L40 4>2>;L=> AB018;L=0 8 4;O <>@A:>3> ;L40 ;568B 2 ?@545;0E 840EMBED Equation.3930 :3/<3, 0 4;O ?@5A=>2>4=>3> - 2 ?@545;0E 800EMBED Equation.3920 :3/<. "0:8< >1@07><, @50;L=K9 480?07>= 87<5=5=8O ?;>B=>AB8 A>AB02;O5B 800EMBED Equation.3930 :3/<3, 0 =081>;55 25@>OB=K5 7=0G5=8O ?;>B=>AB8 4;O <>@A:>3> ;L40 A>AB02;O5B 920 :3/<3, 4;O @5G=>3> 900 :3/<.1.2.2. >MDD8F85=B C0AA>=0>MDD8F85=B C0AA>=0  E0@0:B5@87C5B >B=>H5=85 >B=>A8B5;L=>9 ?>?5@5G=>9 : >B=>A8B5;L=>9 ?@>4>;L=>9 45D>@<0F88 8 2;8O5B =0 25;8G8=C F8;8=4@8G5A:>9 65AB:>AB8 ;54O=>9 ?;0AB8=K D, B.5. =0 ! ;54O=>3> ?>:@>20. >MDD8F85=B C0AA>=0, B0: 65 :0: 8 ?;>B=>ABL ;L40, 87<5=O5BAO 2 ?@545;0E C7:>3> 480?07>=0. "0:,  :>;51;5BAO 2 ?@545;0E 0,31EMBED Equation.30,36. ;O ;L40 87 48AB8;;8@>20==>9 2>4K, =5 A>45@60I59 ?C7K@L:>2 3070, ?@8 @07=>9 B5<?5@0BC@5 8 0B<>AD5@=>< 402;5=88 ?> 40==K< B01.3T,AT,!-10,368-250,358-100,362-500,358"01. 3. >MDD8F85=B C0AA>=0 4;O 48AB8;;8@>20==>9 2>4K.>MDD8F85=B C0AA>=0 A>;5=>3> ;L40 ?@0:B8G5A:8 =5 >B;8G05BAO >B @5G=>3>. > @5:><5=40F88 ;01>@0B>@88 ;54>B5@<8:8 0 8<. .. 545=5520 4;O ;L40 $8=A:>3> 70;820, :0: 4;O 87>B@>?=>3> B5;0, <>6=> ?@8=OBL  = 0,4 ?@8 B>;I8=5 ;L40 0,3< < h < 1,0 < [36]. >6=> @5:><5=4>20BL 4;O ?@5A=>2>4=>3> ;L40  =0,42EMBED Equation.30,34 ... !5@8:>2 [37] A ?><>ILN @57>=0=A=>3> <5B>40 =0H5;, GB>  ?@5A=>2>4=>3> ;L40 4;O 480?07>=0 B5<?5@0BC@ >B 0 4> -31! @02=> 0,414EMBED Equation.30,327..$. >9B:>2A:89 [24] ?@82>48B 7=0G5=8O :>MDD8F85=B0 C0AA>=0 4;O ?@5A=>2>4=>3> ;L40, >?@545;5==K5 .. 59=15@3><, .. 0@B0H:8=K< 8 .., !025;L52K<, 87<5=ONI85AO >B 0,23 4> 0,47 (=081>;55 25@>OB=K5 7=0G5=8O 0,34EMBED Equation.30,36)."0:8< >1@07><, 7028A8<>ABL :>MDD8F85=B0 C0AA>=0 >B B5<?5@0BC@K, A>;5=>AB8 8 4@. D0:B>@>2 <0;> 70<5B=0. 1JOA=O5BAO MB>, ?>-2848<><C, B5<, GB>  E0@0:B5@87C5B >B=>H5=85 25;8G8= 45D>@<0F88, :0640O 87 :>B>@KE <5=O5BAO >48=0:>2> 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B ;54>2KE CA;>289.;O B5>@5B8G5A:8E 8AA;54>20=89 480?07>= 87<5=5=8O  <>65B 1KBL ?@8=OB 0,30EMBED Equation.30,43, 0 =081>;55 25@>OB=K5 7=0G5=8O 4;O ?@5A=>2>4=>3> ;L40 0,35, 4;O <>@A:>3> 0,33. 1.2.3. >4C;L C?@C3>AB8 (<>4C;L .=30)>4C;L C?@C3>AB8  E0@0:B5@87C5B A>?@>B82;O5<>ABL ;L40 C?@C3>9 45D>@<0F88 ?@8 @0ABO65=88 8;8 A60B88 8 ;8=59=> A2O70= A F8;8=4@8G5A:>9 65AB:>ABLN D ;54O=>9 ?;0AB8=K: EMBED Equation.3 (1.1)5;8G8=0 <>4C;O >?@545;O5B 3;C18=C 8 :@8287=C ?5@2>=0G0;L=>9 G0H8 ?@>3810 ;54O=>3> ?>:@>20 ?@8 459AB288 AB0B8G5A:>9 =03@C7:8, 0 7=0G8B, 2;8O5B =5 B>;L:> =0 0<?;8BC4C , 2>71C6405<KE 4286CI59AO =03@C7:>9, => 8 =0 8=B5=A82=>ABL @0728B8O 2>;=>>1@07>20=8O 2 =5CAB0=>282H8EAO @568<0E.>4C;L C?@C3>AB8 A8;L=> 7028A8B >B @568<0 =03@C65=8O.  A2O78 A MB8< ?@8=OB> @07;8G0BL AB0B8G5A:89 ( !T ) 8 48=0<8G5A:89 (  ) <>4C;8 C?@C3>AB8. @8 48=0<8G5A:>< =03@C65=88 C?@C385 A2>9AB20 ;L40 C<5=LH0NBAO, B.5. <>4C;L C?@C3>AB8 2>7@0AB05B.  @01>B5 ..5@45==8:>20 [15] >B<5G05BAO 7028A8<>ABL  >B B5<?5@0BC@K >:@C60NI53> 2>74CE0:EMBED Equation.3 0, (1.2)345 "- 01A>;NB=0O B5<?5@0BC@0 2>74CE0.> 40==K< >;L40 (19583.) <>4C;L .=30 ?@8 " = -5! @025= (9,0EMBED Equation.39,8)*10 48=/A<2. 5:><5=4C5BAO ?@8=8<0BL 7=0G5=85 <>4C;O C?@C3>AB8 2 480?07>=5 (35000EMBED Equation.362000) :3/A<2.  :0G5AB25 A@54=53> 7=0G5=8O  @5:><5=4C5BAO 25;8G8=0 4,23*10 =/A<2. ?KBK =0 ;54>2>9 B@0AA5 04>6A:>3> >75@0 ?>72>;8;8 .. 20=>2C ?>;CG8BL 4;O @5G=>3> ;L40 7=0G5=85 E=40000 :3/A<2 [29] =0;87 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=KE 8AA;54>20=89 ?>72>;8; ?>;CG8BL 480?07>= 25@>OB=KE 7=0G5=89  2 ?@545;0E (8,0EMBED Equation.39,8)*103 0. =0G5=8O  ?> @01>B5 .. >3>@>4A:>3> [20] ?@54AB02;5=K 2 "01;8F5 4. ;>B=>ABL, :3/<3, /<2910-91490000*10590075000*105700-80040000*15"01;8F0 4. =0G5=8O 48=0<8G5A:>3> <>4C;O C?@C3>AB8 >B ?;>B=>AB8.> @5:><5=40F88 ;01>@0B>@88 0 8<. .. 545=5520 2 ;54>B5E=8G5A:8E @0AG5B0E  4>;65= A>AB02;OBL 4* 10 0. 1>1I82 @57C;LB0BK >?@545;5=8O  =0 19403. .. 09=1>@3 ?>4AG8B0;, GB> =081>;55 25@>OB=>5 53> 7=0G5=85 (70EMBED Equation.380)* 10 :3/A<.>74=55 . . 0@B0H:8= (19473.) CAB0=>28;, GB> ?@8 A60B88, @0ABO65=88 8 873815 2 8=B5@20;5 B5<?5@0BC@ >B -5 4> -16! <>4C;L C?@C3>AB8 2 A@54=5< @025= 40*10 :3/A<. .. 5@45==8:>2 (19483.) AG8B0;, GB> <>4C;L C?@C3>AB8 <>=>;8B=>3> ;L40 @025= 90* 10 :3/A<.=0;87 8<5NI8EAO @57C;LB0B>2 ?>72>;O5B A45;0BL 70:;NG5=85, GB> <>4C;L C?@C3>AB8, E0@0:B5@87CNI89 C?@C385 A2>9AB20 ;L40 8 >?@545;O5<K9 2 @57C;LB0B5 C?@C3>9 45D>@<0F88 O2;O5BAO 2 =5:>B>@>9 AB5?5=8 25;8G8=>9 =5>?@545;5==>9, ?>B><C GB> 2K45;8BL ?@8 45D>@<0F88 55 C?@C3CN G0ABL >G5=L B@C4=>.  B> 65 2@5<O B>;L:> ?@8 C?@C38E 45D>@<0F8OE <>4C;L .=30 <>65B 1KBL >?@545;5= =0456=>. >B;8G85 >B 45D>@<0F88 C?@C38E B5; 25;8G8=0 45D>@<0F88 ;L40 7028A8B >B 2@5<5=8 ?@8;>65=8O =03@C7:8. ">G=> B0:65 >B =53> 7028A8B 8 <>4C;L C?@C3>AB8 ;L40, E0@0:B5@87CNI89 7028A8<>ABL 25;8G8=K 45D>@<0F88 >B =03@C7:8. >MB><C <>4C;L C?@C3>AB8 4;O ;L40 A;54C5B >?@545;OBL 2 =081>;55 :>@>B:89 ?@><56CB>: 2@5<5=8 ?@8;>65=8O =03@C7:8, 0 =081>;55 ?>4E>4OI8<8 <5B>40<8 55 >?@545;5=8O A;54C5B AG8B0BL 48=0<8G5A:85. .$. >9B:>2A:89 AG8B05B =081>;55 4>AB>25@=>9 25;8G8=>9 E=90000 :3/A<2, :>B>@>9 8 @5:><5=4C5B ?>;L7>20BLAO 4;O @0AG5B>2 C?@C3>9 45D>@<0F88 ;L40 ?@8 48=0<8G5A:>< 2>7459AB288 =03@C7>:.@8 4;8B5;L=>< 2>7459AB288 =03@C7>: 70 C?@C3CN 45D>@<0F8N 8=>340 F5;5A>>1@07=> ?@8=8<0BL 25;8G8=C >1@0B8<>9 45D>@<0F88, 2>7=8:HCN 2 B5G5=85 ?5@2KE A5:C=4, ?>A;5 ?@8;>65=8O =03@C7:8, :0: 25;8G8=C, 1>;55 ?>;=> >B@060NICN C?@C385 A2>9AB20 ;L40. ;O @0AG5B>2 25;8G8=K B0:>9 45D>@<0F88, >?@545;5==>9 AB0B8G5A:8<8 <5B>40<8 ?@8 A60B88, @0ABO65=88 8;8 873815, 25;8G8=C <>4C;O C?@C3>AB8 ;L40 <>6=> ?@8=OBL @02=>9 40000 :3/A<. @8 MB>< A;54C5B CG8BK20BL >B<5G5==CN 7028A8<>ABL 53> 25;8G8=K >B =0?@O65=89 8 4@C38E D0:B>@>2. A;54AB285 B>3>, GB> ;54 =5 G8AB> C?@C389 <0B5@80;, ..02@>2 ?@54;0305B , >?@545;5==K9 AB0B8G5A:8< <5B>4><, =0720BL <>4C;5< 45D>@<0F88.?@545;5==>9 7028A8<>AB8 <>4C;O >B B5<?5@0BC@K, ?> @0AA<>B@5==K< 7=0G5=8O< >1=0@C68BL =5 C405BAO. 4=0:>, ?> <=5=8N !025;L520 .. ?>2KH5=85 B5<?5@0BC@ <>@A:>3> ;L40 2545B : C<5=LH5=8N 7=0G5=8O <>4C;O C?@C3>AB8. "0:CN B5=45=F8N 8AA;54>20B5;L >1JOA=O5B C25;8G5=85< 2> ;L4C 684:>9 D07K.;O A@02=5=8O 8 1>;55 C4>1=>3> ?@0:B8G5A:>3> 8A?>;L7>20=8O A>AB02;5=0 B01;8F0 5, 2 :>B>@>9 ?@82545=K M:AB@5<0;L=K5 8 =081>;55 25@>OB=K5 7=0G5=8O <>4C;O .=30 4;O ?@5A=>2>4=>3> ;L40."0:8< >1@07><, 4;O 8AA;54>20=8O 2;8O=8O 7=0G5=8O  =0 ! ;54O=>3> ?>:@>20 A;54C5B >E20B8BL 480?07>=K 87<5=5=8O <>4C;O C?@C3>AB8 2 ?@545;0E (EMBED Equation.310)*1030.5B>4#A;>28O =03@C-65=8O"5<?5@0BC@0 ;L40, !>4C;L .=30!B0B8G5A:89!60B85-3 EMBED Equation.3 -53000 EMBED Equation.384000 0ABO65=850 EMBED Equation.3 -817000EMBED Equation.3500007381 0 EMBED Equation.3 -216000EMBED Equation.31170007381 ;54O=>3> ?>:@>20-3 EMBED Equation.3 -829600 EMBED Equation.3440007381 :>=A>;L=KE 10;>:-24000EMBED Equation.345000 57>=0=A=K9> ?@>4>;L=K<0 EMBED Equation.3-1091800EMBED Equation.398000:>;510=8O< -10EMBED Equation.3-4097000EMBED Equation.3111000!59A<8G5A:89--5EMBED Equation.3 -1070000EMBED Equation.3125000081>;55 25@>OB=>5 7=0G5=85--5EMBED Equation.3 -1085000EMBED Equation.390000"01;8F0 5. >4C;L .=30 4;O ?@5A=>2>4=>3> ;L40, :3/A<2.1.2.4. >4C;L A42830>4C;L A42830 E0@0:B5@87C5B A>?@>B82;O5<>ABL ;L40 A4283>2K< 45D>@<0F8O<. = =5 O2;O5BAO A0<>AB>OB5;L=>9 25;8G8=>9, >?@545;ONI59 4@C385 A2>9AB20 <0B5@80;0, 0 7028A8B >B  8 .EMBED Equation.3 (1.3) :0G5AB25 =5?>A@54AB25==KE <5B>4>2 87<5@5=8O G =081>;55 ?@85<;5<K< O2;O5BAO AB0B8G5A:89 <5B>4, 70:;NG0NI89AO 2 8A?KB0=8OE F8;8=4@8G5A:8E 8;8 ?@87<0B8G5A:8E >1@07F>2 ;L40 =0 :@CG5=85. @01>B5 [24] .$. >9B:>2A:89 ?@82>48B 7=0G5=8O G, >?@545;5==K5 AB0B8G5A:8< <5B>4>< ?@8 @07;8G=KE B5<?5@0BC@0E 2 B01;8F5 6.T, !G, :3/A<20EMBED Equation.3-108*103EMBED Equation.334*103-10EMBED Equation.3-20(10EMBED Equation.321)*103EMBED Equation.334*103"01;8F0 6. =0G5=8O <>4C;O A42830 ?@8 @07;8G=KE B5<?5@0BC@0E.@8 A59A<8G5A:>< <5B>45 >?@545;5=8O G <>4C;L A42830 2KG8A;O5BAO ?> D>@<C;5 (1.3.)... !5@8:>2 [37] >?@545;O; G 48=0<8G5A:8< <5B>4><.  G0AB=>AB8 4;O =52A:>3> ;L40 ?@8 B5<?5@0BC@5 >B -3,0 4> -8,0! >= ?>;CG8; 7=0G5=8O G=(34240EMBED Equation.336760) :3/A<2, 0 ?@8 B5<?5@0BC@5 >B -10 4> -30! G= (6000EMBED Equation.337700) :3/A<2. .. >3>@>4A:89 2 8=B5@20;5 B5<?5@0BC@ -3,8 4> -13! ?>;CG8; G=(10400EMBED Equation.334300) :3/A<2, 8 .$. >9B:>2A:89 [25] 4;O @0AG5B>2 C?@C3>9 45D>@<0F88 ?@8 48=0<8G5A:>< 2>7459AB288 =03@C7>: ?@54;0305B G=(30EMBED Equation.334)*103 :3/A<2. > 8<5NI8<AO 40==K< A>AB02;5=0 B01;8F0 7:"5<?5@0BC@0 ;L40, !54>@A:>9@5A=>2>4=K90EMBED Equation.3-515700EMBED Equation.33020024000EMBED Equation.336260-5EMBED Equation.3-1510400EMBED Equation.33430035300EMBED Equation.349000-31-6600EMBED Equation.337700"0:8< >1@07><, @50;L=K9 480?07>= 87<5=5=8O <>4C;O A42830 A>AB02;O5B (2EMBED Equation.33,8)* 103 0.1.2.5. @>G=>ABL ;L40 ?@8 8738157 2A5E ?@>G=>AB=KE E0@0:B5@8AB8: @0AA<>B@8< B>;L:> ?@545; ?@>G=>AB8 ;L40 =0 87381. > 2=8<0=85 ?@8=8<05BAO B>;L:> MB>B 284 45D>@<0F88 ?>B><C, GB> 2>;=>20O =03@C7:0 =0 ;54 >B @0A?@>AB@0=ONI8EAO  ?@82>48B : @07@CH5=8N ;54O=>3> ?>:@>20 B>;L:> 2 @57C;LB0B5 45D>@<0F88 873810.@>G=>ABL ;L40 =0 87381 >?@545;O5BAO =5A:>;L:8<8 A?>A>10<8: ?> @07@CH5=8N 10;>:, A2>1>4=> ;560I8E =0 42CE >?>@0E, ?> @07@CH5=8N :>=A>;59, ;81> ?> @07@CH5=8N :@C3>2KE ?;8B.>4@>1=K9 ?5@5G5=L @57C;LB0B>2 ?> >?@545;5=8N 2@5<5==>3> A>?@>B82;5=8O =0 87381 ?@5A=>2>4=>3> ;L40, ?>;CG5==KE 2 18973. 8 19533. 405B .$. >9B:>2A:89 [24]. .. 02@>2 ?@82>48B A2>8 40==K5 ?> @57C;LB0B0< ?@5A=>2>4=>3> >75@=>3>, ;01>@0B>@=>3> 8 AB@C:BC@=>-<>45;8@C5<>3> ;L40. @5<5==K5 A>?@>B82;5=8O ?@8 873815 10;>: <>@A:>3> ;L40 2 1>;LH>< :>;8G5AB25 >?@545;5=K .. 5B@>2K< [39]. @01>B5 .. !5@8:>20 [37] ?@82545=K 7=0G5=8O 2@5<5==KE A>?@>B82;5=89 ?@8 873815 10;>: 87 <>@A:>3> ;L40 8 :>=A>;59, 2K?>;=5==KE 2 ;54O=>< ?>:@>25. >A;54=85 ?>:070;8 2@5<5==>5 A>?@>B82;5=85 =0 87381 @02=>5 (5,6EMBED Equation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quation.3 (1.4),345 A - =0?@O65=85 A42830. !B0B8G5A:8<8 <5B>40<8 :>MDD8F85=B 2O7:>AB8 ;L40 >?@545;O5BAO <=>38<8 02B>@0<8 ?@8 45D>@<0F88 :@CG5=8O, A42830, @0ABO65=8O, A60B8O 8 873810. 4=8< 87 @0A?@>AB@0=5==KE A?>A>1>2 O2;O5BAO <5B>4 873810 A2>1>4=>9 10;:8, ;560I59 =0 42CE >?>@0E, ?@8 :>B>@>< :>MDD8F85=B  2KG8A;O5BAO ?> D>@<C;5:EMBED Equation.3 (1.5),345 b, l, h  H8@8=0, 4;8=0, 2KA>B0 10;:8 A>>B25BAB25==>; v  CAB0=>282H0OAO A:>@>ABL ?;0AB8G5A:>9 45D>@<0F88.@8 @0ABO65=88 (A60B88) AB5@6=O A5G5=85< S:EMBED Equation.3 (1.6)@8 G8AB>< :@CG5=88 AB5@6=O @048CA>< r:EMBED Equation.3 (1.7),345 :@ - 70:@CG820NI89 <><5=B; EMBED Equation.3 - A:>@>ABL 87<5=5=8O C3;0 70:@CG820=8O.>MDD8F85=B 48=0<8G5A:>9 2O7:>AB8 <>6=> >?@545;8BL ?> 45:@5<5=BC <5E0=8G5A:8E :>;510=89 >1@07F0  =0 :0:>9-B> G0AB>B5 f 8 8725AB=><C <>4C;N C?@C3>AB8 , 8A?>;L7CO 4;O MB8E F5;59 8725AB=>5 A>>B=>H5=85:EMBED Equation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tc 8 l). @5<O @5;0:A0F88 1KAB@KE ?@>F5AA>2 EMBED Equation.3.  1KAB@K< ?@>F5AA0< >B=>AOBAO, =0?@8<5@, 48M;5:B@8G5A:0O, C?@C30O 8 A?8=[email protected]5H5B>G=0O @5;0:A0F88.'0AB>B0 <0:A8<0;L=>3> C<5=LH5=8O 0<?;8BC4K :>;510=89 4;O :064>9 B5<?5@0BC@K >?@545;O5BAO :0: 25;8G8=0, >1@0B=0O 2@5<5=8 @5;0:A0F88.8?>;L=>5 2708<>459AB285 <564C ?@>B>=0<8 @07;8G=KE <>;5:C; ;L40 A?>A>1AB2C5B @5;0:A0F88 A?8=0 [40]. @8 >?@545;5=88 EMBED Equation.3 A?8=[email protected]5H5B>G=>9 @5;0:A0F88 8A?>;L7>20;0AL D>@<C;0 =7035@0:745AL b - 2=CB@8<>;5:C;O@=>5 @0AAB>O=85 <564C ?@>B>=0<8 (0,162 =<);EMBED Equation.3 - G0AB>B0 0@<>@0; EMBED Equation.3 - ?@>B>==>5 38@><03=8B=>5 >B=>H5=85;EMBED Equation.3; :>MDD8F85=B 0,7 A>>B25BAB2C5B C<5=LH5=8N EMBED Equation.3 87-70 2=CB@8<>;5:C;O@=KE 2708<>459AB289.54;5==K5 ?@>F5AAK @5;0:A0F88 2K@02=820NB, =0?@8<5@, B5<?5@0BC@C, 402;5=85, A@54=85 A:>@>AB8 8 4@C385 E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 2A5E G0AB59 A8AB5<K. @5<O @5;0:A0F88 2 MB>< A;CG05 ?@>?>@F8>=0;L=> @07<5@0< A8AB5<K L 8 25;8:> ?> A@02=5=8N A tA 0 8<5==>: EMBED Equation.3 <54;5==K< ?@>F5AA0< @5;0:A0F88 >B=>AOBAO B0:65 2O7:>5 B5G5=85, 48DDC78O, B5?;>?@>2>4=>ABL, M;5:B@>?@>2>4=>ABL 8 B. . A;8 >B:;>=5=85 >B @02=>25A8O <0;>, B> @5;0:A0F8O G0AB> ?@>B5:05B 4> 70:>=C f=f0*e-t/, 345 f0 - @02=>25A=>5 7=0G5=85 =5:>B>@>9 8AA;54C5<>9 DC=:F88 A8AB5<K. @5<O @5;0:A0F88 =0?@O65=89 2> ;L4C, A>3;0A=> <>45;8 B25@4>3> B5;0 0:A25;;0, >?@545;O5BAO 2O7:>ABLN 8 <>4C;5< A42830:EMBED Equation.3@5<O@5;0:A0F88"5<?5@0BC@0 ;L40, !-1,5-16,8-20,9-27,5KG8A;5=> ?> 48M;3,27,82143-:A?5@8<5=- B0;L=>50,5EMBED Equation.30,81,2EMBED Equation.31,93,4EMBED Equation.35,17,2EMBED Equation.310,2"01;8F0 7. @5<O A?8=[email protected]5H5B>G=>9 @5;0:A0F88 2> ;L4C, 2 A5:C=40E, ?> 40==K< @01>BK .. 0==5;A0 [40].0?@8<5@, ?@8  =1012EMBED Equation.31013 0*A 8 G = 1500 0  =660EMBED Equation.36660 A (>B 11 <8=. 4> 1,85 G0A0) [34]. !;54>20B5;L=>, 2@5<O @5;0:A0F88 ;L40 ?> 0=0;>388 A :>MDD8F85=B>< 2O7:>AB8 =5 O2;O5BAO D878G5A:>9 :>=AB0=B>9. 80?07>= 87<5=5=8O  - >B <0;KE 4>;59 A5:C=4K 4> =5A:>;L:8E G0A>2 [24, 40].;O A;CG0O >4=>AB>@>==53> A60B8O ?@5A=>2>4=>3> ;L40 (2 ?@54?>;>65=88, GB> G =1500 0) ?>;CG5=> A;54CNI55 M<?8@8G5A:>5 C@02=5=85 @5;0:A0F88 [24]:EMBED Equation.3345 "- B5<?5@0BC@0 157 7=0:0 <8=CA, !; t- 2@5<O, G. 1.2.6.3. @>G=>ABL@>G=>ABL - MB> A2>9AB2> <0B5@80;>2 2 >?@545;5==KE CA;>28OE 8 ?@545;0E, =5 @07@CH0OAL, 2>A?@8=8<0BL @07;8G=K5 <5E0=8G5A:85 =03@C7:8 8 =5@02=><5@=K5 2>7459AB28O D878G5A:8E ?>;59.@>G=>ABL ;L40 2 7=0G8B5;L=>9 AB5?5=8 7028A8B >B <=>3>>1@078O 53> AB@C:BC@=KE >A>15==>AB59.0 ?@>G=>ABL ;L40 A8;L=> 2;8ONB 2=5H=85 CA;>28O - E0@0:B5@ =03@C7>:, B5?;>2>9 @568<, 03@5AA82=>ABL A@54K, ?>25@E=>AB=K5 MDD5:BK 8 B. 4. 50;L=K9 ;54 A>45@68B <=>3>G8A;5==K5 ?>2@5645=8O - >B AC1<8:@>A:>?8G5A:8E 8 <8:@>A:>?8G5A:8E 45D5:B>2 4> :@C?=KE ?>@ 8 <038AB@0;L=KE B@5I8=.A=>2K D878G5A:8E B5>@89 B5G5=8O 8 @07@CH5=8O B25@4KE B5; AB0;8 CA?5H=> @072820BLAO ;8BL 2 ?>A;54=85 3>4K, ?>MB><C A59G0A =5 2A5340 2>7<>6=>, 4065 :0G5AB25==> >1JOA=8BL =5:>B>@K5 >A>15==>AB8 ?@>F5AA0 @07@CH5=8O. 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