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JUDGES IN GREAT BRITAIN
In Britain, the vast majority of judges (that is the people who decide what should be done with people who commit crimes) are unpaid. They are called "'Magistrates", or "Justices of Peace"'. They are ordinary citizens who are selected not because they have any legal training but because they have ''sound common sense" and understand their fellow human beings. They give up time voluntarily.
A small proportion of judges are not Magistrates. They are called "High Court Judges" and they deal with the most serious crimes, such as those for which the criminal might be sent
to prison for more than a year. High Court Judge unlike Magistrates, are paid salaries by the State and have considerable legal training.
Magistrates are selected by special committees in every town and district. Nobody, not even the Magistrates themselves, knows who is on the special committee in their area*. The committee tries to draw Magistrates from as wide a variety of professions and social classes as possible.
Answer the questions:
1. What kind of people are Magistrates?
2. Why are they selected?
3. Who selects Magistrates?
4. What do High Court Judges deal with?
THE COURT SYSTEM OF ENGLAND AND WALES
The most common type of law court in England and Wales is the magistrates" courCThere are 700 magistrate's court and about 30,000 magistrates.
Most serious criminal cases then go to the Crown Court, which has 90 branches in different towns and cities. Civil cases (for example, divorce or bankruptcy cases) are dealt with in County courts.
Appeals are heard by higher courts^For example, appeals from magistrates' courts are heard in the Crown Court, unless they are appeals on points of law. The highest court of appeal in England and Wales is the House of Lords. Certain cases may be referred to the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg (the European Court of Human Rights).
The legal system also includes juvenile courts (which deal with offenders under seventeen) and coroners" courts (which investigate violent, sudden or unnatural deaths/'There are administrative tribunals which make quick, cheap and fair decisions with much less formality. Tribunal deal with professional standards, dispute between individuals, and disputes between individuals and government departments (for example, over taxation).
Answer the questions:
1. What is the most common type of law court in England and Wales?
2. Name three other types of British courts.
3. Which Court deals with more serious criminal cases?
5. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на употребление времен группы Perfect:
1) Не has told her all about his travel.
2) I have never been to StPetersburg.
3) Have you finished your homework?
4) They have been friends for years.
5) By the time he leaves home, we shall have come to the station.
6) We are sure that he will have kept his promise.
7) She told us that she had not finished her report yet.
8) He has been the best student in the class.
9) She said she had had her lunch.
10) By the end of the week we shall already have translated his book.
11) They have been absent from class all week.
7. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на местоимения one (ones), that (those):
l)This text is more difficult than that one. 2) One of the students is absent today. 3) One must always try to speak English at our lessons. 4) There is only one way to do it. 5) Those present at the meeting were the teachers from our school. 6) I like to read English books as well as Russian ones. 7) The students of the first group study better than those of the second one. 8) These pictures are better than those. 9) This film is more interesting than that I saw last week. 10) I don't like this book. Give me another one.

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