Название: Топики по английскому языку
The United Nations is an organization of sovereign nations representing almost all of humanity. The United Nations has played and continues to play, an active role in reducing tension in the world, preventing conflicts and putting an end to fighting already under way.
The name UN was devised by US President F. Roosevelt.
The UN Charter was drown up by the representatives of 50 countries and was signed on 26 June 1945. The UN officially came into existence on 24 October 1945 when the charter had been ratified.
There are six main organs of the United Nations - the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council, the Secretariat and the International Court of Justice. The Court has its seat at The Hague, Netherlands. All other organs are based at the United Nations Headquarters in New York.
All UN Member States are represented in the General Assembly. Members of the General Assembly talk to each other in many languages, but officially there are only six - Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish.
The Security Council consists of 15 Council members and answers for the international safety.
The Economic and Social Council consists of 54 members, elected for three-year terms and coordinates on the economic and social work of the UN.
The Trusteeship Council was established to provide international supervision for 11 Trust Territories administered by 7 Member States.
The International Court of Justice is the main judicial organ of the UN, consisting of 15 judges and decides disputes between countries.
The Secretariat carries out the substantive and administrative work of the UN. At its head is the Secretary-General.
* The NATO*
North Atlantic Treaty Organization is the organization developed to implement the North Atlantic Treaty, signed on April 4, 1949 and entered into force on August 24, 1949. It was created to establish a military counterweight to the Soviet military presence in post-World War 2 Eastern Europe.
NATO’s governing body – the North Atlantic Council which was established soon after the Treaty came into effect. The council is composed of ministerial representatives of the member states and meets of least twice a year. Its chairman, chosen by rotation among the member states.
NATO is the organization which serves the Alliance. It is an inter-government organization in which member countries retain their full sovereignty and independence. The Organization provides the forum in which they consult together on any issues they may choose to raise and take decisions on political and military matters affecting their security.
NATO’s essential purpose is thus to safeguard the freedom and security of all its members by political and military means in accordance with the principles of the UN.
The Court system of the USA
The American court system is complex. It functions as the part of the federal system of government. Each state runs its own court system, and two are identical. In addition, we have a system of courts for the national government. These federal courts coexist with state courts.
Individuals fall under the jurisdiction of two different court systems, their state court and federal courts. They can sue or be sued either system, depending mostly on what there case is about. The vast majority of cases are resolved in the state courts.
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