Название: Штат Техас
(801 mi) from north to south, Texas, the Lone Star State, occupies
almost 7.5 percent of the total U.S. land area--a region as large
as all of New England, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, andnois combi-
ned. By 1994 Texas had grown to become the second most populous
U.S. state, moving ahead of New York and following California. It
derives its name from the Spanish and Indian words tejas and tec-
has, meaning "friends" or "allies."
Texas shows the influence of both the Indians and the Spa-
nish, French, and other European explorers and missionaries. In
1820, Moses and Stephen F. Austin started the Anglo-American colo-
nization that culminated in the organization of a provisional go-
vern ment at San Felipe on Nov. 3, 1835, and in independence from
Mexico on Mar. 2, 1836. After almost ten years as an independent
republic, Texas became a U.S. state on Dec. 29, 1845.
The modern economic development of Texas started in January
1901 with the eruption of an oil well drilled at Spindletop, near
Beaumont. The rapid discovery of oil in other parts of the state
led to a boom that has never really stopped. The economy of Tex as
has become highly diversified, and its population has more than qu-
intupled during the 20th century.
LAND AND RESOURCES
Topography and Soils
Four major physiographic subdivisions of North America are
found in Texas: the Gulf Coastal Plain in the east and southeast,
the North Central Plains running north to southeastward in the cen-
ter of the state, the Great High Plains in the northwest, and t he
Trans-Pecos Mountains to the extreme west and southwest. The topog-
raphy of Texas rises gradually from east to west, reaching its hig-
hest point in Guadalupe Peak (2,667 m/8,749 ft) in the Trans-Pecos.
The Gulf Coastal Plain, extending about 80 to 100 km (50 to
60 mi) inland from the Gulf of Mexico, from sea level to an altitu-
de of about 150 m (500 ft), has a rolling to hilly surface. Its
western part consists of a fertile belt of land of irregular wid th
known as the Blackland Prairie.
Inland from the Coastal Plain, the North Central Plains of
Texas are the southern extension of the GREAT PLAINS, and they re-
ach southwestward across the entire state to the Rio Grande river.
The plains' southern portion is known as the Edwards Plateau. T he
border of the North Central Plains on the west is the Staked Plain,
or Llano Estacado in Spanish. It consists of a flat-topped table-
land with an elevation of about 1,200 m (4,000 ft). Lying between
Mexico and New Mexico, the barren Trans-Pecos region in southwes-
tern Texas alternates between rolling hills in the Pecos River val-
ley and the isolated high ridges of the Guadalupe and Davis mounta-
Texas is divided into 14 land resource areas that have simi-
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